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August 1, 2021
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As a citizen of Nigeria, you are definitely entitled to being a member of any political party of your choice. This fundamental right is guaranteed in section 40 of the Nigerian Constitution.

According to Nigerian Law, anyone who wants a position in any political office has to be a member of a political party.

Steps and requirements to join a political party

Step 1: 18years and above

The first step is to ensure that you are of age before joining a political party in Nigeria. You have to be at least 18 years and must be a citizen of Nigeria.

Step 2: Select a political party of your choice

Make a choice of your Nigerian Political Party. There are about 90 political parties in Nigeria. So take out quality time to do your research about the party that suits your ideology and ethics. However, there are major parties in Nigeria such as PDP, APC, etc.

Step 3: Visit Ward or Headquarters of Political Party

After choosing a political party, you will afterward visit the ward party office or the headquarters of the political party. The location of these offices would be clearly stated on the official website of the party.

More specifically, you would see the contact address of the ward of the party across the country. Also, you could go to your ward of origin to register. The Poltikit portal also allows you to join the party of your choice from the website.

Your information will be passed on to your party who will then reach out to you. It is advised that you also visit your party office as soon as possible.

Step 4: Fill Forms of Register

Visit the secretary of your ward and find out how much it costs to join the political party.

Fill whatever form is handed over to you after proper reading and understanding of the content of the form. Attach necessary supporting documents and wait till you are fully registered.

Step 5: Membership Card

After the registration has been completed, your documents equally signed by the chairman of the ward and also the secretary, you would receive a membership card of the party showing that you are a card bearing party member.


August 1, 2021
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A political party is an organized group that shares the same ideology and same political view and field candidates for elections in an attempt to take over power to be able to implement their agenda. Political parties are often considered a strong feature of Democracy.

While the above is how political parties are generally seen, sometimes political parties might be without a core ideology as they represent different ideologies from time to time depending on the situation at hand. Many at times, parties have also digressed from the ideology it had as at the time it was established.

Many countries around the world such as Ger- many, India, etc have a significant multiparty system while countries like China and Cuba run a single-party system. The United States and the United Kingdom run a two-party system with many small parties participating. Nigeria is mostly considered a two-party system with smaller parties participating more or less.

Nigeria is mostly considered a two-party system with smaller parties participating more or less.

The oldest continuous parties in the world are The Conservative Party of the United Kingdom which was founded in 1834 and The Democratic Party of the United States formed in 1828.

Currently, the oldest continuous party in Nigeria includes the People’s Democratic Party which was established in 1998 while Nigeria’s first political party was the Nigerian National Democratic Party which was founded in 1923 by Hebert Macaulay.

 

Political Ideologies.

A political ideology is a set of ideas, beliefs, values, and opinions, exhibiting a recurring pattern, that competes deliberately as well as unintentionally over providing plans of action for public policymaking in an attempt to justify, explain, contest, or change the social and political arrangements and processes of a political community.

 

Five major political ideologies:

Anarchism Absolutism Liberalism Conservatism Socialism. These political ideologies are, for the most part, mutually exclusive.

The belief that the best government is absolutely no government is known as Anarchism.

These political ideologies are, for the most part, mutually exclusive. So, a liberal government does not usually practice socialism, nor does an absolute ruler follows liberalism. The five major political ideologies have played a key role in history by shaping governments and political movements.

 

Anarchism

The belief that the best government is absolutely no government is known as Anarchism. This ideology argues that everything about governments is repressive and therefore must be abolished entirely.

A related ideology known as Nihilism emphasizes that everything—both government and society— must be periodically destroyed in order to start anew. Nihilists often categorically reject traditional- al concepts of morality in favor of violence and terror.

Anarchism and nihilism were once associated with socialism because many anarchists and nihilists supported the socialists’ call for revolution and the complete overhaul of government and society in the early to mid-twentieth century. Russia has had a long association with anarchism and nihilism.

Absolutism

Traditionally, much of Western civilization’s history was dominated by Absolutism, the belief that a single ruler should have control over every aspect of the government and of the people’s lives. Absolute rulers had a variety of titles, including chieftain, king, shah, pharaoh, emperor, sultan, and prince.

In some cultures, the absolute ruler was seen as a god in human form. Other peoples believed that their ruler had the Divine Right Of Kings, meaning that God had chosen the ruler to govern the rest. the belief that the ruler is head of both the governmental authority and the religious authority.

Liberalism

In the early modern age of the Western world (be- ginning roughly in the early 1500s and running for about 200 years), a number of changes occurred that led to new ideologies.

The European discovery of the Americas, the rise of Protestantism, the beginnings of the free-market economy, and the early stages of the scientific revolution fundamentally altered Europe. People began developing different ways of thinking to take account of these changes.

 

The basic tenets of Liberalism are:

Individualism:         The individual takes priority over society.

The basic tenets of liberalism are Individualism, Freedom, Equality, Rationalism, Progress, and the Free Market.

Freedom: Individuals have the right to make choices for themselves. This freedom is not absolute, and some behaviors, such as murder, are prohibited. Freedom of religion is a particularly important freedom to come out of liberalism because so many governments at the time were very closely tied to a particular religious creed.

Equality: No person is morally or politically superior to others. Hierarchies are rejected.

Rationalism: Humans are capable of thinking logically and rationally. Logic and reason help us solve problems.

Progress: Traditions should not be kept unless they have value. New ideas are helpful because they can lead to progress in the sciences, the economy, and society.

The Free Market: Liberalism and capitalism go hand in hand. Liberals like the free market because it more easily creates wealth, as opposed to traditional economies, which often have extensive regulations and limits on which occupations people can hold.

These basic characteristics of liberalism have led liberals to argue in favor of a limited government, which draws its power from the people. In practice, this has meant favoring a democratic government.

Conservatism

Conservatism (also known as Classical Conservatism) began as a reaction against the liberal ideas taking hold of Europe during the French Revolution in the late eighteenth century.

Conservatism emphasizes:

Conservatism emphasizes Collectivism, Public Ownership, Central Economic Planning, and Economic Equality.

Stability: Stability is a precious thing, and change must be made gradually in order to preserve it. Undermining stability is very dangerous because societies can easily fall into chaos and violence. Classical liberals frequently called for revolution, which opens the door to great turbulence, according to the classical conservative view.

Concreteness: Liberalism is too abstract. It focuses on freedom and equality, not on the concrete way people live every day.

Human Fallibility: Liberalism overestimates human beings. Humans are frequently ignorant, prejudiced, and irrational. By ignoring these defects, liberalism becomes unrealistic.

Unique Circumstances: There is no universal answer to the problems of society; the circumstances are unique in each country.

Socialism

Socialism arose as a response to the Industrial Revolution, which was the emergence of technologies such as the steam engine and mass production.

The Industrial Revolution started in England in the last years of the eighteenth century and had spread to much of Europe and America by the end of the nineteenth century. It caused major upheavals: In a very short time, many people were forced to abandon agricultural ways of life for the modern mechanized world of factories.

Socialism arose as a response to the Industrial Revolution, which was the emergence of technologies such as the steam engine and mass production.

Early versions of socialism were put forward in Europe in the first part of the nineteenth century (these versions are often dubbed “utopian socialism”), but truly influential socialist theories did not emerge until industrialization expanded in the mid-nineteenth century. Karl Marx is the best-known theorist of socialism.

Along with Friedrich Engels, Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) as a call to revolution. Other prominent socialists thinkers included Karl Kautsky, Vladimir Lenin, and Antonio Gramsci.

 

Socialism emphasizes:

 Collectivism: Human beings are social by nature, and society should respect this. Individualism is poisonous.

Public Ownership: Society, not individuals, should own the property.

Central Economic Planning: The government plans the economy; there is no free market.

Economic Equality: All citizens have roughly the same level of prosperity.

Democratic socialism has been quite successful in western Europe and Scandinavia. Many governments there have extensive welfare systems that have remained largely intact even when democratic socialists are voted out of office.


August 1, 2021

Large group of people forming Nigeria map

Democracy is a government in which power and civic responsibility are exercised by all adult citizens, directly, or through their freely elected representatives. Democracy rests upon the principles of majority rule and individual rights.

Democracies guard against all-powerful central governments and decentralize government to regional and local levels, understanding that all levels of government must be as accessible and responsive to the people as possible.

Citizens in a democracy have not only rights but also the responsibility to participate in the political system that, in turn, protects their rights and freedoms.

Democracies understand that one of their prime functions is to protect such basic human rights as freedom of speech and religion; the right to equal protection under the law; and the opportunity to organize and participate fully in the political, economic, and cultural life of society. Democracies conduct regular free and fair elections open to citizens of voting age.

Citizens in a democracy have not only rights but also the responsibility to participate in the political system that, in turn, protects their rights and freedoms. Democratic societies are committed to the values of tolerance, cooperation, and compromise. In the words of Mahatma Gandhi, Intolerance is itself a form of violence and an obstacle to the growth of a true democratic spirit.

 

Rights and Responsibility in a Democracy:

Fundamental Rights

This relationship of citizen and state is fundamental to democracy. In the words of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776:

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed”

 

More specifically, in democracies, these fundamental or inalienable rights include freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion and conscience, freedom of assembly, and the right to equal protection before the law. This is by no means an exhaustive list of the rights that citizens enjoy in a democracy, but it does constitute a set of the irreducible core rights that any democratic government worthy of the name must uphold.

 

Speech, Assembly, and Protest

Freedom of speech and expression, especially about political and social issues, is the lifeblood of any democracy. Democratic governments do not control the content of most written and verbal speech. Thus democracies are usually filled with many voices expressing different or even contrary ideas and opinions.

Democracy depends upon a literate, knowledgeable citizenry whose access to information enables it to participate as fully as possible in the public life of society and to criticize unwise or oppressive government officials or policies. Citizens and their elected representatives recognize that democracy depends upon the widest possible access to uncensored ideas, data, and opinions. For a free people to govern themselves, they must be free to express themselves – openly, publicly, and repeatedly – in speech and in writing.

Freedom of speech is a fundamental right, but it is not absolute, and cannot be used to incite violence.

All people have the right to worship or assemble in connection with a religion or belief, and to establish and maintain places for these purposes.

Protests serve as a testing ground for any democracy – thus the right to peaceful assembly is essential and plays an integral part in facilitating the use of free speech. Freedom of speech is a fundamental right, but it is not absolute, and cannot be used to incite violence. Slander and libel, if proven, are usually defined and controlled through the courts.

 

Religious, Freedom, and Tolerance

All citizens should be free to follow their conscience in matters of religious faith. Freedom of religion includes the right to worship alone or with others, in public or private, or not to worship at all, and to participate in religious observance, practice, and teaching without fear of persecution from government or other groups in society.

All people have the right to worship or assemble in connection with a religion or belief, and to establish and maintain places for these purposes.

Separation of Powers

Through free elections, citizens of a democracy confer powers that are defined by law upon their leaders. In a constitutional democracy, the power of government is divided so that the legislature makes the laws, the executive authority carries them out, and the judiciary operates quasi-independently.

These divisions are sometimes described as a separation of powers. In actual practice, however, such divisions are rarely neat, and in most modern democratic states these powers are overlapping and shared as much as they are separated

Executive Arm

Executive authority in modern democracies is generally organized in one of two ways: as a parliamentary or a presidential system.

In a parliamentary system, the majority party (or a coalition of parties willing to govern together) in the legislature forms the executive branch of the government, headed by a prime minister.

The legislative and executive branches are not entirely distinct from one another in a parliamentary system, since the prime minister and members of the cabinet are drawn from the parliament; even so, the prime minister is the national leader.

In a presidential system, by contrast, the president usually is elected separately from the members of the legislature. Both the president and the legislature have their own power bases and political constituencies, which serve to check and balance each other.

For presidential systems, the principal claims are direct accountability, continuity, and strength. Presidents, elected for fixed periods by the people, can claim authority deriving from the direct election, whatever the standing of their political party in the congress.

By creating separate but theoretically equal branches of government, a presidential system seeks to establish strong executive and legislative institutions, each able to claim a mandate from the people and each capable of checking and balancing the other.

Legislative Arm

Elected legislatures – whether under a parliamentary or presidential system – are the principal forum for deliberating, debating, and passing laws in a representative democracy.

They are not so-called rubber-stamp parliaments merely approving the decisions of an authoritarian leader. Legislators may question the government officials about their actions and decisions, approve national budgets, and confirm executive appointees to courts and ministries. In some democracies, legislative committees provide lawmakers a forum for these public examinations of national issues.

Legislators may support the government in power or they may serve as a loyal political opposition that offers alternative policies and programs.

Legislators may support the government in power or they may serve as a loyal political opposition that offers alternative policies and programs.

Legislators have a responsibility to articulate their views as effectively as possible. But they must work within the democratic ethic of tolerance, respect, and compromise to reach agreements that will benefit the general welfare of all the people – not just their political supporters.

 

Each legislator must alone decide on how to balance the general welfare with the needs of a local constituency. Nigeria operates under the bi-cam-era legislative style with two legislative houses. Nigeria’s legislative arm has the upper and lower chamber. The Senate is the upper chamber with 109 members. Three legislatures from each of the thirty-six states and one from the federal capital territory. The lower chamber which is known as the house of assembly has 360 members.

 

Judiciary Arm

Independent and professional judges are the foundation of a fair, impartial, and constitutionally guaranteed system of courts of law.

Independent and professional judges are the foundation of a fair, impartial, and constitutionally guaranteed system of courts of law.

This independence does not imply judges can make decisions based on personal preferences, but rather that they are free to make lawful decisions – even if those decisions contradict the government or powerful parties involved in a case. In democracies, the protective constitutional structure and prestige of the judicial branch of government guarantees independence from political pressure.

 

Thus, judicial rulings can be impartial, based on the facts of a case, legal arguments, and relevant laws

  • without restrictions or improper influence by the executive or legislative branches. These principles ensure equal legal protection for The power of judges to review public laws and declare them in violation of the nation’s constitution serves as a fundamental check on potential government abuse of power – even if the government is elected by a popular majority.

 

This power, however, requires that the courts be seen as fundamentally independent and non-partisan and able to rest their decisions upon the law, not political considerations. Whether elected or appointed, judges must have job security or tenure, guaranteed by law, in order that they can make decisions without concern for pressure or attack by those in positions of authority. To ensure their impartiality, judicial ethics require judges to step aside (or recuse themselves) from deciding cases in which they have a personal conflict of interest. Judges in a democracy cannot be removed for minor complaints, or in response to political criticism.

 

Instead, they can be removed only for serious crimes or infractions through the lengthy and difficult procedure of impeachment (bringing charges) and trial – either in the legislature or before a separate court panel.

 

With these rights listed above, can we say that Nigeria is truly practicing democracy?


August 1, 2021
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The word “democracy” means “rule by the people. Democracy, which derives from the Greek word demos, or people, is defined, basically, as a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people. In some forms, democracy can be exercised directly by the people; in large societies, it is by the people through their elected agents.

Or, in the memorable phrase of President Abraham Lincoln, democracy is “government of the people, by the people, and for the people”.

Freedom and democracy are often used interchangeably, but the two are not synonymous. Democracy is indeed a set of ideas and principles about freedom, but it also consists of practices and procedures that have been molded through a long, often tortuous history. Democracy is the institutionalization of freedom.

Democracy rests upon the principles of majority rule and individual rights.

Democracies rest upon the principle that government exists to serve the people. In other words, the people are citizens of the democratic state, not its subjects. Because the state protects the rights of its citizens, they, in turn, give the state their loyalty.


May 6, 2021
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Is there a reason that citizens should engage their government? Of what use is talking to a government that citizens perceive continues to fail without their problems being solved?

Citizenship engagement is very challenging, especially in many African countries where the leaders have repeatedly failed the people and there is widespread corruption. Citizens in these countries, including Nigeria, have lost faith in the ability of the elected officials to deliver the holy grail of quality leadership they so much seek from their leaders.

Despite this concern, citizens’ engagement is very essential to holding public officials accountable and enriching the democratic process. Through citizens’ engagement, the government is able to understand the genuine concerns of the people and their needs. It is also an opportunity for the government to carry citizens along within its programs and policies. Once the people are involved and feel involved, they take on their citizenship status, which in turn translates to a better community. The citizens are eager to get the word out
about government policies and programs and follow through.
At @PolitiKIT_NG, we give opportunities to young people to be trained in the areas of community mobilization, advocacy and political leadership. This fellowship program equips the fellows with the necessary skills for community and national engagement.

Here are 7 Reasons why you should be involved in community engagement

  1. Engaging with the government will enhance community building and reduce anti-government sentiments.
  2. Getting involved will inspire other people to join you and may lead to more extensive types of government participation.
  3. Government policies and programs will be improved in terms of administrative feasibility and acceptance. These policies will mostly be tailored according to the needs of the people – thanks to your engagement.
  4. You will help the government have a better understanding of the problems, needs, and priorities of the people.
  5. You will force the government to be more open and transparent which will help build citizens’ trust in government.
  6. You will not be one of the people who sit down and lament the deplorable state of things in your community.
  7. That is how you become a leader because leadership is about solving problems and not lamenting about problems.

May 6, 2021
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It is a truism that funds are very critical to the proper and effective running of political parties. Without funds, it would be absolutely difficult for political parties to articulate their ideas and visions to the public and, without which the electorates cannot make informed choices during elections.

Political parties are funded mainly through contributions from party members and individual supporters (e.g. membership fees, dues, subscriptions and donations). Funding of political parties can also come from organizations that share the parties’ political views (for instance trade union affiliation fees), or business establishments that can benefit from party activities (corporate donations).

However, in the Nigerian situation, not many political parties are able to generate funds to fund its activities except for the two dominant political parties. Consequently, these other parties who do have as much financial muscle as the “Big two” are unable to compete favourably against the big two.

At a recent event, stakeholder’s meeting on political party reforms, organized by the Westminster Foundation for Democracy (WFD), political parties present noted that the inherent danger with the shortcoming is that it allows a few moneybags to hijack the party for selfish and personal interests and godfatherism. These political parties believe that if parties are given funds to operate, it will create a leveled playing field where the so-called smaller parties can compete.

Another argument has been that, because the smaller parties are not able to compete, they are susceptible to being recruited by the bigger political parties to work for them. Instances of these include agent of a party working for another party on election day, candidates stepping down for candidates of the “big two”, coalitions in support of major candidates as seen the cases of Coalition of United Political Parties (CUPP) and Coalition of Progressives Political Parties (COP3) which both worked for the PDP and APC candidates respectively.

These kinds of situations no doubt pose a threat to the democratic processes in Nigeria. But is government funding of political parties the solution to this? And if it is, how should this be implemented? Will the other big two political parties and others who have won elections be eligible for this government funding? What would the parameters be for government financing of political parties?

In many democracies around the world, political parties are funded through subsidies or public funding. These are sums the government pays directly to political parties to fund some or all of their political activities. This happens in countries such as Kenya, the UK, Brazil, Mexico, Zambia, etc.

In 1998, a subsidy was introduced in Nigeria to encourage the formation of political parties ahead of the transition to democracy. Over the years, this subsidy was thoroughly abused by parties, as many parties got registered and merely awaited election periods for government’s subvention. Most of these funds ended up in the pockets of a handful of party leaders. Between 2003 and 2009, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) provided funds to political parties as subventions. This made setting up political parties
quite attractive in Nigeria, as a group of persons could obviously come together to form political parties just for INEC’s ‘free money’. The requirements for registering political parties were so simple that it made it easy for various groups to abuse this provision. Arguably, the last time political parties received such from the Federal Government was in 2009, during the dispensation of late President Umaru Yar’Adua when the subsidy was removed in a 2010 constitutional amendment. That year, each registered party received N6 million.

Presently, Nigerian political parties have a wide range of avenues for raising funds. Parties can levy dues from their membership, either regularly or upon registration. They can solicit donations from supportive interest groups such as labour unions and private business. Parties also finance themselves by charging would-be candidates for nomination and expression of interest forms before elections. Finally, some parties include in their internal constitutions the right to levy a percentage of salary—usually about five per cent—from their elected and appointed public officers.

If government funding of political parties is re-introduced, how should we ensure we stem the proliferation of political parties with the aim to abuse this policy? If political parties are unable to source funds to pursue their aims and objectives, should they even be registered in the first place as political parties? More importantly, can Nigeria afford the extra expenses of funding political parties? Should this even be a priority?


May 6, 2021
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Many Nigerians, every day, are concerned about various issues that border from economy to health to education to social development. Many of us wish we could do something about it and many of us are doing something about it through advocacy. The majority of those working on advocacy has also been
engaged at the community level mobilizing for change. Today’s post discusses the possibility of social change to reduce social inequalities that undermine peoples’ opportunities to equity and economic
prosperity, and the role of community mobilization in facilitating such change. So how do you begin to mobilize for a social change?

  1. Firstly, you need to identify a problem in your community or society that tickles your passion. An issue that you feel very strongly about. It could be degradation of the environment, social injustice, human rights abuse, etc. Don’t be discouraged when people ask you why you choose to advocate for a particular issue over another one which in their opinion is more important. For instance, someone might ask you, why are you advocating for the environment when there is so much injustice around. Don’t be perturbed, there is definitely someone else, whose interest is advocacy against injustice.
  2. Now that you have identified your passion, begin to talk to friends who you think will support your cause. Invite people to come and be part of something bigger than themselves.
  3. Approach community leaders and authorities within your community and discuss the problem with them.
  4. Ask your supporters to refer friends and family. From school to places of worship, to the gym, to professional organizations, and social media, your supporters are in meaningful places you can’t always be. Arm your supporters with creative ways to evangelize on your behalf and make it easy for them to invite their friends and family to join them in supporting your cause.
  5. Encourage the people who support your cause to write an online review or anywhere else they can. A positive review can go a long way in impacting the impressions of prospective donors.
  6. Win real, immediate, concrete improvements through short-term, attainable goals (otherwise known as “issues”). The ultimate goals may not be reached for years or even decades, but you achieve small wins to keep the movement going.
  7. Give your supporters a sense of their own power by promoting the self-confidence of your cause and its individual members. Because people who develop a sense of their organized power are more likely to stay active and take on larger issues.
  8. Continue to engage community leaders, lawmakers and policymakers. Write petitions and get as many people as possible to sign the petition

May 6, 2021
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It is less than 23 months before Nigerians will once again go to the polls to elect their political office leaders in an election that is already touted as the most important election in Nigeria’s history. Political watchers and analysts postulate that the 2023 general elections will either break or mar Nigeria; that is, it will ultimately determine the fate of the country and its about 200 million citizens.
So much is at stake such as Nigeria’s unity, which region should produce the next president, who should be Nigeria’s president, restructuring, and so on. Unlike in 2015, when the choices before Nigerians were either APC or PDP, the choices ahead of the 2023 elections are plethora, unique and diverse in their ways. The unemployment rate in the country has shot up to 33.3% from 27.1% in the second quarter of 2020. What this means is that over 69 million able Nigerians are unemployed. The combination of a bulging population of unemployed Nigerians and soaring prices of commodities in the market has
brought untold hardship to the citizens. Job creation is very critical to the economic prosperity of Nigerians at this time. The mood of Nigerians towards the current administration, which has been tainted with accusations of nepotism, incompetence and insensitivity, has been nothing short of disappointment and dissatisfaction. The economy has refused to blossom, job opportunities have plummeted and unemployment soars, high levels of insecurity, rising ethnic and religious tensions, massive corruption, etc have made it all imperative that Nigerians must make conscious choices to restore Nigeria’s stability and growth in all sectors. Also in contention, in addition to competence and capacity, is the youthfulness of the president. Recent debates about the actual age of the national leader of the All People’s Congress (APC), Bola Ahmed Tinubu as he marked his 69th birthday in the city of Kano, is a clear indication that Nigerians will vote an individual who is not only competent but also has age on his/her side. It is not surprising that the age of a man who has been rumoured to be
courting the presidency in 2023 can be of public concern. This is because the tedious responsibilities of a president befit someone of a younger age who still has lots of energy in-store; someone who is innovative and a creative leader.

One of the most important choices before the country is either there are deliberate efforts to strengthen the unity of the country with a shared purpose or allow it to continue to wallow in religious, ethnic, and partisan infractions. Should the eventual choice be strengthening Nigeria’s unity, then the country must be restructured as a foundation towards unity. The actualisation of these choices hinges greatly on the political participation of young people. Participation in the political process gives opportunities to individuals and groups to effect the changes they want to see or influence policymakers to effect those changes. This is the work that an organization like Raising New Voices has been doing with young people across the country to ensure youth participation and inclusion in politics and governance.